Month: April 2020

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The way to get a Sugardaddy to Give You Cash

If you’re trying to figure out how to get a sugar daddy to offer you money, it might not always be as easy as you imagine. There are certain requirements that will should be met produce it work and ensure that it runs as designed.

Men like staying pampered and being medicated just like a princess. You might not think that the right sort of person would even consider delivering money, yet it’s accurate. They’re looking for someone to purchase expensive items, such as clothing, electronics, furniture, cars, and jewelry. Naturally , you’re going to currently have a lot of material things on your debit card.

The only thing that they’re not going to be considering is starting their own business. The more time that you just spend making love with them, the more you’ll be spending at home. As you spend a fraction of the time performing that, they will think that an individual really want a relationship, hence the relationship turns into short lived.

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If you want to discover how to get a sugar daddy to give you money, you’ll need to be aware of how to attract men who desire the same love-making. You also need to learn how to switch them in women.

ज्योतिबा फुले ने क्यों बनाया था सत्य शोधक समाज

महामना ज्योतिबा फुले ने भारतीय समाज को आधुनिक बनाने के अपने आंदोलन को आगे बढ़ाने हेतु 24 सितंबर, 1873 को ‘सत्य शोधक समाज’ की नींव रखी. सामाजिक न्याय की दिशा में ये एक बड़ा कदम था.

जाति प्रथा, पुरोहितवाद, स्त्री-पुरुष असमानता और अंधविश्वास के साथ समाज में व्याप्त आर्थिक-सामाजिक एवं सांस्कृतिक भ्रष्टाचार के विरुद्ध सामाजिक परिवर्तन की जरूरत भारत में शताब्दियों से रही है. इस लक्ष्य को लेकर आधुनिक युग में सार्थक, सशक्त और काफी हद तक सफल आंदोलन चलाने का श्रेय प्रथमत: ज्योतिराव फुले को ही जाता है. उन्हें ज्योतिबा फुले या ज्योतिबा फुले नाम से भी जाना जाता है. व्यक्ति की स्वतंत्रता और समानता के लिए उनके चलाए आंदोलन के कारण उन्हें आधुनिक भारत की परिकल्पना का पहला रचनाकार भी माना जाता है. ये बात महत्वपूर्ण है कि बाबा साहेब डॉ बीआर आंबेडकर ने बुद्ध और कबीर के साथ ज्योतिबा फुले को अपना गुरु माना था.

सत्य शोधक समाज की ऐतिहासिक भूमिका

ज्योतिबा फुले के इस आंदोलन में उनके द्वारा स्थापित सत्य शोधक समाज की बड़ी भूमिका थी. ज्योतिबा फुले के मरने के बाद उनकी पत्नी सावित्रीबाई फुले ने सत्य शोधक समाज के काम को आगे बढ़ाया. वर्तमान समय में समाजशास्त्री गेल ऑम्वेट और रोजालिंड ओ हैनलॉन ने इस बारे में काफी विस्तार से लिखा है, जिसकी वजह से अकादमिक जगत में भी इस की काफी चर्चा है.

यह मानकर कि जाति व्यवस्था को धार्मिक और आध्यात्मिक आधार देने वाले हिंदू धर्म से टकराए बगैर समाज में व्याप्त तरह-तरह की कुरीतियों का समाधान असंभव है, ज्योतिबा फुले ने हिंदू धर्म को सीधी चुनौती पेश की. हजारों वर्षों से मिथक एवं पुराकथाएं जनसाधारण के लिए शास्त्र का काम करती आई हैं. इसे देखते हुए फुले ने ‘गुलामगिरी’ पुस्तक के माध्यम से, लोक प्रचलित मिथकों की पड़ताल की. इसके फलस्वरूप एक ऐसी चेतना का विस्तार हुआ हुआ, जो आगे चलकर देश के विभिन्न भागों में जातिवाद विरोधी आंदोलनों की प्रेरणा बना.

महामना फुले का जीवन

ज्योतिबा फुले का जन्म एक साधारण माली परिवार में पेशवाई का गढ़ कहे जाने वाले पुणे में हुआ था. पेशवाई शासक जातीय दंभ तथा अस्पृश्यों पर अत्याचार के लिए जाने जाते थे. शूद्रों और अतिशूद्रों को जातीय उत्पीड़न से मुक्ति दिलाने के लिए फुले ने उन्हें संगठित होने और आधुनिक शिक्षा प्राप्त करने की सलाह दी. अपनी पत्नी सावित्रीबाई फुले तथा अन्य सहयोगियों की मदद से उन्होंने कई शिक्षण संस्थाओं की स्थापना की. लड़कियों का पहला स्कूल खोलने का श्रेय उन्हें ही है.

लोगों को अशिक्षा, पुरोहितशाही, जातीय भेदभाव, उत्पीड़न, भ्रष्टाचार आदि के विरुद्ध जागरूक करने हेतु जो पुस्तकें उन्होंने रचीं, उसकी लिस्ट इस प्रकार है. 1- तृतीय रत्न (नाटक, 1855), 2- छत्रपति राजा शिवाजी का पंवड़ा (1869), 3- ब्राह्मणों की चालाकी( 1869), 4- ग़ुलामगिरी(1873), 5- किसान का कोड़ा (1883), 6- सतसार अंक-1 और 2 (1885), 7- इशारा (1885), 8-अछूतों की कैफियत (1885), 9- सार्वजनिक सत्यधर्म पुस्तक (1889), 10- सत्यशोधक समाज के लिए उपयुक्त मंगलगाथाएं तथा पूजा विधि (1887), 11-अंखड़ादि काव्य रचनाएं (रचनाकाल ज्ञात नहीं).

सत्य शोधक समाज की स्थापना

समाज परिवर्तन के आंदोलन को संगठित रूप से आगे बढ़ाने हेतु उन्होंने 24 सितंबर, 1873 को ‘सत्य शोधक समाज’ की नींव रखी. उन दिनों समाज सुधार का दावा करने वाले कई संगठन काम कर रहे थे. उनमें ‘ब्रह्म समाज’ (राजा राममोहन राय), ‘प्रार्थना समाज’ (केशवचंद सेन), पुणे सार्वजनिक सभा (महादेव गोविंद रानाडे) आदि प्रमुख थे. लेकिन वे सभी द्विजों द्वारा, द्विजों की हित-सिद्धि के बनाए गए थे. उनकी कल्पना में पूरा भारतीय समाज नहीं था. वे चाहते थे कि समाज में जाति रहे, लेकिन उसका चेहरा उतना क्रूर और अमानवीय न हो. इसी क्रम में 1875 में बने आर्य समाज का नाम भी आता है, जो वेदों की ओर लौटने का बात कर रहा था.

शूद्रों-अतिशूद्रों की शिक्षा को लेकर राजा राममोहन राय और केशवचंद सेन दोनों के विचार थे कि पहले समाज के उच्च वर्गों में शिक्षा के न्यूनतम स्तर को प्राप्त कर लिया जाए. ऊपर के स्तर पर शिक्षा अनुपात बढ़ेगा तो उसका अनुकूल प्रभाव निचले स्तर पर भी देखने को मिलेगा. अर्थशास्त्र की भाषा में इसे ‘रिसाव का सिद्धांत’ या ट्रिकल डाउन थ्योरी कहते हैं. इसके अनुसार, ऊपर के वर्गों की समृद्धि धीरे-धीरे रिसकर समाज के निचले वर्गों तक पहुंचती रहती है. ऐसा सोचने वाले ये भूल जाते थे कि प्राचीन काल में जब हर द्विज बच्चे को अनिवार्यतः गुरुकुल जाना पड़ता था, तब ब्राह्मणों का शिक्षानुपात लगभग शत-प्रतिशत होता था. वहीं, निचली जातियों का शिक्षानुपात शून्य पर टिका रहता था. यानी शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में ट्रिकल डाउन थ्योरी भारत जैसे देश में सफल नहीं हो सकती क्योंकि ये जन्म से ही निर्धारित हो जाता था कि कौन पढ़ेगा और कौन श्रम करेगा और कौन शिक्षा प्राप्त करने वालों की सेवा करेगा.

सत्य शोधक समाज के उद्देश्य

सत्य शोधक समाज के प्रमुख उद्देश्य थे- शूद्रों-अतिशूद्रों को पुजारी, पुरोहित, सूदखोर आदि की सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक दासता से मुक्ति दिलाना, धार्मिक-सांस्कृतिक कार्यों में पुरोहितों की अनिवार्यता को खत्म करना, शूद्रों-अतिशूद्रों को शिक्षा के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना, ताकि वे उन धर्मग्रंथों को स्वयं पढ़-समझ सकें, जिन्हें उनके शोषण के लिए ही रचा गया है, सामूहिक हितों की प्राप्ति के लिए उनमें एकजुटता का भाव पैदा करना, धार्मिक एवं जाति-आधारित उत्पीड़न से मुक्ति दिलाना, पढ़े-लिखे शूद्रातिशूद्र युवाओं के लिए प्रशासनिक क्षेत्र में रोजगार के अवसर उपलब्ध कराना आदि. कुल मिलाकर ये सामाजिक परिवर्तन के घोषणापत्र को लागू करने का कार्यक्रम था.

सत्य शोधक समाज का फैलाव

शूद्रों और अतिशूद्रों का ज्योतिबा फुले पर भरोसा था. इसकी सबसे बड़ी वजह शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में किए गए उनके काम थे. इसलिए सत्य शोधक समाज को उन्होंने हाथों-हाथ लिया. कुछ ही वर्षों में उसकी शाखाएं मुंबई और पुणे के शहरी, कस्बाई एवं ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में खुलने लगीं. एक दशक के भीतर वह संपूर्ण महाराष्ट्र में पैठ जमा चुका था. समाज की सदस्यता सभी के लिए खुली थी, फिर भी मांग, महार, मातंग, कुनबी, माली जैसी अस्पृश्य एवं अतिपिछड़ी जातियां तेजी से उससे जुड़ने लगीं.

लोगों ने शादी-विवाह, नामकरण आदि अवसरों पर पुरोहितों को बुलाना छोड़ दिया. इससे ब्राह्मण पुजारियों ने निचली जातियों को यह कहकर भड़काना शुरू कर दिया कि बिना पुरोहित के उनकी प्रार्थनाएं ईश्वर तक नहीं पहुंच पाएंगी. घबराए हुए लोग फुले के पास गए. फुले ने उन्हें समझाया कि तमिल, बंगाली, कन्नड़ आदि गैर-संस्कृत भाषी लोगों की प्रार्थनाएं ईश्वर तक पहुंच सकती हैं, तो उनकी अपनी भाषा में की गई प्रार्थना को ईश्वर भला कैसे अनसुना कर सकता है! उन्होंने कहा कि जहां बहुत जरूरी हो, वहां अपनी ही जाति के अनुभवी व्यक्ति को पुरोहित की जिम्मेदारी सौंपी जा सकती है. स्वयं फुले ने कई अवसर पर पुरोहिताई की.

बिना पुरोहित के विवाह-संस्कार

इस संदर्भ में एक प्रसंग बेहद दिलचस्प है. एक परिवार में शादी होने वाली थी. पुरोहितों ने घर आकर डराया कि बिना ब्राह्मण एवं संस्कृत मंत्रों के हुआ विवाह ईश्वर की दृष्टि में अशुभ माना जाएगा. उसके अत्यंत बुरे परिणाम होंगे. गृहिणी सावित्रीबाई फुले को जानती थी. फुले को पता चला तो उन्होंने सत्य शोधक समाज के बैनर तले विवाह संपन्न कराने का ऐलान कर दिया. सैकड़ों सदस्यों की उपस्थिति में वह विवाह खुशी-खुशी संपन्न हुआ.

एक अन्य घटना में पुरोहितों ने घुड़सवार भेजकर दूल्हे के पिता को धमकी दी. लोगों को यह कहकर भड़काया कि फुले उन्हें ईसाई बनान चाहते हैं. लेकिन फुले इन धमकियों से कहां डरने वाले थे? अप्रिय घटना से बचने के लिए उन्होंने प्रशासन से मदद मांगी. पुलिस की निगरानी में वह विवाह सफलतापूर्वक संपन्न हो सका.

लोगों तक बातें पहुंचाने का निराला अंदाज

ज्योतिराव अपना संदेश लोगों तक कैसे पहुंचाते थे, इसका एक रोचक किस्सा रोजलिंड ओ हेनलान ने अपनी पुस्तक में दिया है. एक बार फुले अपने मित्र ज्ञानोबा सासने के साथ पुणे के बाहर स्थित एक बगीचे के भ्रमण के लिए गए. वहां एक कुआं था, जिससे उस बगीचे की सिंचाई होती थी. जैसे ही दोपहर का अवकाश हुआ, सभी मजदूर खाना खाने बैठ गए. यह देख फुले कुएं तक पहुंचे और कुएं के डोल को चलाने लगे. काम करते-करते उन्होंने गाना भी शुरू कर दिया. मजदूर उन्हें देखकर हंसने लगे. फुले ने उन्हें समझाया, ‘इसमें हंसने जैसा कुछ नहीं है? मजदूर लोग काम करते हुए अकसर गाते-बजाते हैं. केवल मेहनत से जी चुराने वाले लोग ही फुर्सत के समय वाद्ययंत्रों का शौक फरमाते हैं. असली मेहनतकश जैसा काम करता है, वैसा ही अपना संगीत गढ़ लेता है.’

सत्य शोधक समाज के माध्यम से फुले ने शूद्रों और अतिशूद्रों को अपने विकास और मान-प्रतिष्ठा अर्जित करने का जो रास्ता करीब 146 वर्ष पहले दिखाया था, सामाजिक न्याय के संदर्भ में आज भी वह उतना ही जरूरी और प्रासंगिक है.

(साहित्य की विभिन्न विधाओं में लेखन करने वाले ओमप्रकाश कश्यप की लगभग 35 किताबें प्रकाशित हो चुकी हैं.यह लेख उनका निजी विचार है.)

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राहुल सांकृत्यायन (9 अप्रैल 1893 – 14 अप्रैल 1963) पर विशेष

राहुल सांकृत्यायन ब्राह्मण परिवार में जन्मे उन चंद बुद्धिजीवियों में शामिल थे, जिन्होंने ब्राह्मणवाद के समूल नाश का आह्वान किया। उन्होंने सभी धार्मिक ग्रंथों, ऋषियों और भगवानों को चुनौती दी जो वर्ण व्यवस्था का समर्थन करते

तुम्हारे जाति, धर्म, संस्कृति और ईश्वर की क्षय     

मनुवादी भारतीय सामाजिक व्यवस्था के जातिवादी किले को ध्वस्त करने की मुहिम आधुनिक भारत में जोती राव फुले ने शुरू की। उन्होंने ब्राह्मणवाद को  खुली चुनौती दी और उसके बरक्स बहुजनों की श्रमण परंपरा को स्थापित किया। आंबेडकर और पेरियार ने इसे और व्यापक बनाया। इस शुरूआत का व्यापक असर भारतीय समाज पर पड़ा, लेकिन सवर्ण हिंदू समाज का बड़ा हि्स्सा इसे अप्रभावित रहा और अपनी उच्च जातीय श्रेष्ठता के दंभ से चिपका रहा। लेकिन सवर्ण समुदाय से भी कुछ ऐसे व्यक्तित्व हुए जिन्होंने ब्राह्मणवाद और जाति व्यवस्था को खुली चुनौती दी और इसके विनाश को नए समाज की रचना के लिए अनिवार्य बताया। ऐसे व्यक्तित्वों में से एक राहुल सांकृत्यायन हैं।

1950 में ली गयी राहुल सांक‍ृत्यायन की एक तस्वीर

वे एक ऐसे व्यक्तित्व हैं, जिन्होंने हिंदू धर्मईश्वर औरमिथकों पर टिकी हिंदू संस्कृति के विध्वंस का आह्वान किया। उनका मानना था कि ऐसा किए बिना नए समाज की रचना नहीं की जा सकती है। उन्होंने अपनी किताब ‘तुम्हारी क्षय’ में लिखा कि, ‘जिन ऋषियों को स्वर्ग, वेदान्तऔर ब्रह्म पर बड़ेबड़े व्याख्यान और सत्संग करने कीफुर्सत थीजो दान और यज्ञ पर बड़ेबड़े पोथे लिखसकते थे, क्योंकि इससे उनको और उनकी संतानों कोफायदा थापरंतु मनुष्यों के ऊपर पशुओं की तरह होतेअत्याचारों को आमूल नष्ट करने के लिए उन्होंने कोईप्रयत्न करने की आवश्यकता नहीं समझी। उन ऋषियों सेआज के जमाने के साधारण आदमी में भी मानवता केगुणअधिकहैं।’ वे अपनी किताब ‘तुम्हारी क्षय’ में  उन सभी चीजों के विनाश की कामना करते हैं, जिन पर ब्राह्मणवादी गर्व करते हैं। वे साफ शब्दों में घोषणा करते हैं , ‘जातपांत की क्षय करने से हमारे देश का भविष्यउज्जवल हो सकता है।’

राहुल सांकृत्यायन द्वारा लिखित पुस्तक ‘तुम्हारी क्षय’ का मुख्य पृष्ठ

राहुल सांकृत्यायन (9 अप्रैल 1893 – 14 अप्रैल 1963) का जन्म गाय पट्टी (काउ बेल्ट) में एक ब्राहमण परिवार मेंहुआ था। वह वेदान्तीआर्य समाजीबौद्ध मतावलंबी सेहोते हुए मार्क्सवादी बने। विद्रोही चेतनान्यायबोध औरजिज्ञासा वृति ने पूरी तरह से ब्राहमणवादी जातिवादीहिंदूसंस्कृति के खिलाफ खड़ा कर दिया। फुले औरआंबेडकर की तरह उन्हें जातिवादी अपमान का व्यक्तिगततौर पर तो सामना तो नहीं करना पड़ालेकिन सनातनीहिंदुओं की लाठियां जरूर खानी पड़ी। राहुल सांकृत्यायनअपने अपार शास्त्र ज्ञान और जीवन अनुभवों के चलतेहिंदुओं को सीधे ललकारते थेउनकी पतनशीलता औरगलाजत को उजागर करते थे। वे अपनी किताबों मेंविशेषकर ‘तुम्हारी क्षय’ में हिंदुओं के समाजसंस्कृतिधर्मभगवानसदाचारजातपांत के अमानवीय चेहरेको बेनकाब करते हैं। वे स्वतंत्रता, समता और भाईचारेपर आधारित एक उन्नत समाज का सपना देखते हैं। उन्हेंइस बात का गहराई से एहसास है कि मध्यकालीन बर्बरमूल्यों पर आधारित समाज और उसकी व्यवस्था काविध्वंस किए बिना नए समाज की रचना नहीं की जासकती है। वे साफ शब्दों में हिंदू समाज व्यवस्थाधर्मजाति और उसके भगवानों के नाश का आह्वान करते हैं।वे हिंदू समाज व्यवस्था के सर्वनाश का आह्वान करते हुएसवाल पूछते हैं कि ‘हर पीढ़ी के करोड़ो व्यक्तियों केजीवन को कलुषितपीड़ित और कंटकाकीर्ण बनाकरक्या यह समाज अपनी नरपिशाचा का परिचय नहीं देताहै? ऐसे समाज के लिए हमारे दिल में क्या इज्जत होसकती हैक्या सहानुभूति हो सकती है और भीतर सेजघन्यकुत्सित कर्मधिक्कार है ऐसे समाज को!!  सर्वनाश हो ऐसे समाज का!!!’   

राहुल सांकृत्यायन अपने अनुभव और अध्ययन से इसनिष्कर्ष पर पुहंच चुके थे कि धर्म के आधार पर बंधुत्वआधारित मानवीय समाज की रचना नहीं की जा सकतीहै। चाहे वह कोई भी धर्म हो। वे ‘तुम्हारे धर्म की क्षय’ मेंलिखते हैं कि ‘पिछले दो हजार वर्षों का इतिहास बतलारहा है कि…मजहबों ने एकदूसरे के ऊपर जुल्म केकितने पहाड़ ढाये।… अपनेअपने खुदा और भगवान केनाम परअपनीअपनी किताबों और पाखंडों के नाम परमनुष्य के खून को उन्होंने (धर्मों ने) पानी से भी सस्ता करदिखलाया।… हिंदुस्तान की भूमि भी ऐसी धार्मिकमतान्धता का शिकार रही है।… इस्लाम के आने से पहलेभी क्या मजहब ने वेदमंत्र के बोलने और सुनने वालों केमुंह और कानों में पिघले शीशे और लाह नहीं भरा?…इस्लाम के आने के बाद तो हिंदूधर्म और इस्लाम के खूँरेज झगड़े आज तक चल रहे हैं।’ इसी के चलते राहुलसाफ घोषणा करते हैं कि हिंदुस्तानियों की एकता मजहबोंके मेल पर नहीं होगीबल्कि मजहबों की चिता पर होगी।वे लिखते हैं, ‘मजहब नहीं सिखाता आपस में बैर रखना’– इस सफेद झूठ का क्या ठिकाना। अगर मजहब बैर नहींसिखलाता तो चोटीदाढ़ी की लड़ाई मेंहजार बरस सेआज तक हमारा मुल्क पामाल क्यों हैंपुराने इतिहासको छोड़ दीजिएआज भी हिंदुस्तान के शहरों और गांवोंमें एक मजहब वालों को दूसरे मजहब वालों के खून काप्यासा कौन बना रहा हैंऔर कौन गाय खाने वालों कोगोबर खाने वालों से लड़ा रहा है। असल बात यह है किमजहब तो है सिखाता आपस में बैर रखना। भाई कोसिखाता है भाई का खून पीना।” कौए को धोकर हंस नहींबनाया जा सकता। कमली धोकर रंग नहीं चढ़ाया जासकता। मजहबों की बीमारी स्वाभाविक है। उसकामौतको छोड़कर इलाज नहीं हैं।

बौद्ध धर्म की दीक्षा लेते राहुल सांकृत्यायन (साभार – जया सांकृत्यायन)

धर्म ईश्वर के नाम पर टिका हैजिसे वह सृष्टिकर्ता औरविश्व का संचालक मानता है। राहुल सांकृत्यायन ईश्वर केअस्तित्व से ही इंकार करते हैं। वे स्पष्ट तौर पर कहते हैंकि ईश्वर अंधकार की उपज है। वे लिखते हैं– ‘जिससमस्याजिस प्रश्नजिस प्राकृतिक रहस्य को जानने मेंआदमी असमर्थ समझता थाउसी के लिए ईश्वर काख्याल कर लेता था। दरअसल ईश्वर का ख्याल है भी तोअंधकार की ऊपज।… अज्ञान का दूसरा नाम ही ईश्वर है।’ वे इस बात को बारबार रेखांकित करते हैं कि अन्यायऔर अत्याचार को बनाये रखने का शोषकोंउत्पीडितोंका एक उपकरण हैं। वे लिखते हैं, ‘अज्ञान औरअसमर्थता के अतिरिक्त यदि कोई और भी आधार ईश्वरविश्वास के लिए हैतो वह धनिकों और धूर्तों की अपनीस्वार्थरक्षा का प्रयास है। समाज में होते अत्याचारों औरअन्यायों को वैध साबित करने के लिए उन्होंने ईश्वर काबहाना ढूंढ लिया है। धर्म की धोखाधड़ी को चलाने औरउसे न्यायपूर्ण साबित करने के लिए ईश्वर का ख्याल बहुतसहायक है।

राहुल सांकृत्यायन हिंदू धर्मईश्वर और मिथकों पर टिकीहिंदू संस्कृति के विध्वंस का भी आह्वान करते हैं। वेतुम्हारे इतिहासाभिमान और संस्कृति के क्षय’ में लिखते हैंकि आजकल की तरह उस समय भी ‘इतिहास– ‘इतिहास’—संस्कृति-‘संस्कृति’ बहुत चिल्लाया जाता है।रामराज्य की दुहाई दी जाती है। हिंदुओं की संस्कृति औररामराज्य की हकीकत की पोल खोलते हुए वे लिखते हैं‘हिंदुओं के इतिहास में राम का स्थान बहुत ऊँचा है।आजकल के हमारे बड़े नेता गांधी जी मौकेमौकेरामराज्य की दुहाई दिया करते हैं। वह रामराज्य कैसाहोगाजिसमें कि बेचारे शूद्र शम्बुक का सिर्फ यहीअपराध था कि वह धर्म कमाने के लिए तपस्या कर रहाथा और इसके लिए राम जैसे ‘अवतार’ और ‘धर्मात्माराजा’ ने उनकी गर्दन काट ली? वह राजराज्य कैसा रहाहोगा जिसमें किसी आदमी के कह देने मात्र से राम नेगर्भिणी सीता को जंगल में छोड़ दिया?’

1958 में प्रधानमंत्री जवाहर लाल नेहरू से साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार ग्रहण करते राहुल सांकृत्यायन

हिंदू धर्म और ईश्वर से अपनी मुक्ति की प्रक्रिया का वर्णनकरते हुएउन्होंने अपनी आत्मकथा ‘मेरी जीवन यात्रा’ मेंलिखा“आर्य समाज का प्रभाव रहने से सिद्धान्त में मैंद्वैतवादी हो रामानुज का समर्थक रहा। इसी दार्शनिकऊहापोह में बौद्ध दर्शन के लिये अधिक जिज्ञासा उत्पन्न होगयीरामानुज और शंकर की ओर सेअन्ततः वर्णाश्रमधर्म का श्राद्ध कर दिया। ।’’ लेकिनराहुल कहां रूकनेवाले थे। अपनी आगे की जीवनयात्रा के बारे में उन्होंनेलिखा,  ‘अब मेरे आर्य सामाजिक और जन्मजात विचारछूट रहे थे। अन्त मेंइस सृष्टि का कर्ता भी हैसिर्फ इसपर मेरा विश्वास रह गया था। किन्तु अब तक मुझे यह नहींमालूम था कि मुझे बुद्ध और ईश्वर में से एक को चुनने कीचुनौती दी जायेगी। मैंने पहले कोशिश कीईश्वर और बुद्धदोनों को एक साथ लेकर चलने कीकिन्तु उस पर पगपग पर आपत्तियां पड़ने लगीं। दोतीन महीने के भीतरही मुझे यह प्रयत्न बेकार मालूम होने लगा। ईश्वर औरबुद्ध साथ नहीं रह सकतेयह साफ हो गया और यह भीस्पष्ट मालूम होने लगा कि ईश्वर सिर्फ काल्पनिक चीज हैबुद्ध यथार्थ वक्ता हैं। तबकई हफ्तों तक हृदय में एकदूसरी बेचैनी पैदा हुई– मालूम होता थाचिरकाल से चलाआता एक भारी अवलम्ब लुप्त हो रहा है। किन्तु मैंनेहमेशा बुद्ध को अपना पथप्रदर्शक बनाया थाऔर कुछही समय बाद उन काल्पनिक भ्रान्तियों और भीत्तियों काख्याल आने से अपने भोलेपन पर हँसी आने लगी। अबमुझे डार्विन के विकासवाद की सच्चाई मालूम होने लगीअब मार्क्सवाद की सच्चाई हृदय और मस्तिष्क में पेबस्तजान पड़ने लगी।’’ अन्ततोगत्वा राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने एकधर्म के रूप में बौद्ध धर्म से भी नाता तोड़ लिया। वे बुद्धको एक महान इंसान और महान विचारक तो मानते रहेलेकिन धर्म के रूप में बुद्ध धर्म से भी किनारा कर लियाऔर पूरी तरह से वैज्ञानिक भौतिकवाद को अपना लिया।‘जीवन यात्रा’ में उन्होंनेलिखा है– ‘कोई समय था किजब मैं धर्मप्रचारक बनने का तीव्र अनुरागी थालेकिनअब अवस्था बिल्कुल बदल गयी थी। बौद्ध धर्म के साथभी मेरा कच्चे धागे का ही सम्बन्ध था। हाँ बुद्ध के प्रतिमेरी श्रद्धा कभी कम नहीं हुई। मैं उन्हें भारत का सबसेबड़ा विचारक मानता रहा हूँ और मैं समझता हूँ कि जिसवक्त दुनिया के धर्म का नामोनिशान न रह जायेगाउसवक्त भी लोग बड़े सम्मान के साथ बुद्ध का नाम लेंगे।’’ अकारण नहीं है कि वे धर्म और ईश्वर दोनों को गरीबों कासबसे बड़ा दुश्मन मानते थे और चाहते थे कि जितनाजल्दी इनका क्षय होगामानवता उतनी ही जल्दी उन्नतिके शिखरों को छूयेगी।

इस प्रकार हम देखते हैं कि राहुल सांकृत्यायनहिंदूसंस्कृति के मनुष्य विरोधी मूल्यों पर निर्णायक हमला तोकरते ही हैंवह यह भी मानते हैं कि मनुष्य को धर्म कीकोई आवश्यकता नहीं हैंइंसान वैज्ञानिक विचारों केआधार पर खूबसूरत समाज का निर्माण कर सकता हैएक बेहतर जिंदगी जी सकता हैं। सबसे बड़ी बात यह किवह उत्पादन– संपत्ति संबंधों में क्रान्तिकारी परिवर्तन केहिमायती हैं, क्योंकि मार्क्स की इस बात से पूरी तरहसहमत हैं कि भौतिक आधारों में क्रान्तिकारी परिवर्तनकिए बिना राजनीतिकसामाजिकसांस्कृतिक संबंधों मेंक्रान्तिकारी परिवर्तन लाया नहीं जा सकता है और जोपरिवर्तन लाया जायेगाउसे टिकाए रखना मुश्किल होगा। हां वे वामपंथियों में अकेले व्यक्ति थेजो इस यांत्रिकऔर जड़सूत्रवादी सोच के विरोधी थे कि आधार मेंपरिवर्तन से अपने आप जाति व्यवस्था टूट जायेगा। इसकेसाथ ही हिंदी क्षेत्र के वे एकमात्र वामपंथी थेजोब्राहमणवादी हिंदू धर्मसंस्कृति पर करारी चोट करते थेऔर भारत में सामंतवाद की विशिष्ट संरचना जाति कोसमझते थे और आधार और अधिरचना (जाति) दोनों केखिलाफ एक साथ निर्णायक संघर्ष के हिमायती थे। इससमझ को कायम करने में ब्राहमण विरोधी बौद्ध धर्म केउनके गहन अध्ययन ने महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई थी।उनकी तीन किताबें ‘ बौद्ध दर्शन’,  ‘दर्शन– दिग्दर्शन’ औरवैज्ञानिक भौतिकवाद’ इस दृष्टि से अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण हैं।

What Is Online Dating?

When it comes to online dating, you may be wanting to know exactly what the definition of online means. If you are, this post will provide a lot of insight into this kind of fascinating area of the dating world.

Online dating is a great arrangement in which individuals are in a position to meet and introduce themselves throughout the Internet. It might be very thrilling to know that someone you know offers the same hobbies as you do, or that you have comparable hobbies and values, but there are so many even more advantages to using a good over the internet connection.

Online dating services offer a secure, private environment where people can connect the hopes, dreams, and needs without having to worry about others. The main target of these sites is to help individuals get acquainted with each other better, to create important relationships, and to build long-term romances. These sites are extremely user-friendly, so no matter how knowledgeable an individual is within Internet groundwork, he/she is bound to be able to navigate the site.

As you be accustomed to the Internet and the various dating sites that include emerged within the scene, you may begin to wonder what exactly is going out with. The term seeing has very long since recently been taken to mean meeting up in the flesh to partake in some sort of physical exercise. While this is not entirely inaccurate, it can be misleading as there are a number of online dating offerings which have not do with physically achieving up in so that it will date various other individuals.

Some of the more common services presented include online chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A variety of various other applications are available to the internet user, including games, sites, newsgroups, social network sites, and so much more. For anyone who is new to the online world and do not know what these sites happen to be, you can search for the types of terms within a general search engine and then pick the https://elite-brides.com/pakistani-brides certain type of internet site that fits your curiosity. Once you understand what these kinds of online dating sites will be, you may feel at ease and prepared to begin with using they.

You are likely to certainly get hold of more than a few stuff that you would like to test out with among the many online dating expertise, including chatting online with a person you met through another internet site, getting to know the other through emails, and instant messaging, as well as participating in over the internet chats. These are all things that you should try before making virtually any commitments, but , if you are enthusiastic about meeting somebody face to face you really should explore the other options first.

What Is Online Dating?

When it comes to online dating sites, you may be wanting to know exactly what the term online means. If you are, this article will provide a few insight into this kind of fascinating part of the dating world.

Online dating sites is an arrangement through which individuals are able to meet and introduce https://elite-brides.com/pakistani-brides themselves through the Internet. It could be very enjoyable to know that someone you know delivers the same passions as you do, or that you have related hobbies and values, nonetheless there are so many even more advantages to having a good web based connection.

Online dating services offer a secure, private environment where individuals can connect their very own hopes, dreams, and needs without worrying about others. The main goal of these sites is to help individuals become familiar with each other better, to create meaningful relationships, and to generate long-term relationships. These sites are very user-friendly, thus no matter how experienced an individual is within Internet research, he/she is likely to be able to run the site.

As you be a little more accustomed to the net and the different dating sites that own emerged at the scene, you might begin to wonder what exactly is seeing. The term seeing has long since been taken to mean meeting up in the flesh to partake in some kind of physical activity. While this is not entirely incorrect, it can be deceiving as there are numerous online dating solutions which have nothing to do with physically reaching up in order to date other individuals.

Some of the more widespread services provided include on line chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A variety of other applications can be obtained to the internet user, including games, blogs, newsgroups, social gaming, and so much more. If you are new to the net and do not know very well what these sites are, you can search for all those types of terms in a general internet search engine and then pick the specific type of web page that fits your curiosity. Once you comprehend what these kinds of online dating sites happen to be, you may feel comfortable and all set to start using these tools.

You are going to certainly come across more than a few facts that you would like to experience with one of the many online dating solutions, including communicating online having a person you met through another internet site, getting to know the other through emails, and instant messaging, and participating in internet chats. These are all things that you should experiment with before making virtually any commitments, however if you are interested in meeting someone face to face you really should explore the other options first.

What Is Online Dating?

When it comes to online dating sites, you may be thinking exactly what the term online means. If you are, this article will provide some insight into this kind of fascinating part of the dating world.

Online dating is an arrangement through which individuals are capable of meet and introduce themselves through the Internet. It is very fascinating to know that someone you know comes with the same interests as you do, or that you have similar hobbies and values, nevertheless there are so many even more advantages to having a good on the web interconnection.

Online dating services offer a safe, private environment where people can speak their very own hopes, dreams, and needs without worrying about other folks. The main goal of these sites is to help individuals get to know each other better, to create meaningful relationships, and to produce long-term romantic relationships. These sites are extremely user-friendly, hence no matter how experienced an individual is at Internet investigate, he/she is likely to be able to get around the site.

As you become more accustomed to the world wide web and the several dating sites that currently have emerged on the scene, you may begin to speculate what exactly is going out with. The term dating has lengthy since recently been taken to signify meeting up in the flesh to partake in some kind of work out. While this is not entirely inaccurate, it can be deceptive as there are many different online dating expertise which have nothing to do with physically getting together with up in so that it will date additional individuals.

Some of the more widespread services presented include on the web chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A variety of additional applications can be found to the on line user, including games, blogs, newsgroups, online community, and so much more. For anyone who is new to the world wide web and do not really know what these sites happen to be, you can search for people types of terms within a general google search and then choose the specific type of site that fits your interest. Once you realize what these types of online dating sites are, you may feel at ease and prepared to begin using these tools.

You are going to certainly discover more than a few facts that you would like to test out with among the many online dating products, including communicating online with a person you met through another site, getting to know the other person through emails, and instant messaging, and participating in via the internet chats. These are all things that you should check out before making any kind of commitments, however if you are thinking about meeting somebody face to face you might want to explore https://elite-brides.com/pakistani-brides the other available choices first.

Precisely what is Online Dating?

When it comes to online dating services, you may be pondering exactly what the word online means. If you are, this article will provide some insight into this kind of fascinating area of the dating world.

Online dating services is a great arrangement in which individuals are able to meet and introduce themselves through the Internet. It might be very interesting to know that someone you know offers the same hobbies as you do, or that you have very similar hobbies and values, but there are so many even more advantages to having a good via the internet connection.

Online dating services offer a safe, private environment where individuals can communicate all their hopes, dreams, and needs without having to worry about other folks. The main objective of these sites is to support individuals get to know each other better, to create significant relationships, and to create long-term associations. These sites are incredibly user-friendly, and so no matter how skilled an individual is Internet groundwork, he/she is bound to be able to get around the site.

As you become more accustomed to the web and the several dating sites that https://elite-brides.com/pakistani-brides currently have emerged over the scene, you might begin to think about what exactly is online dating. The term seeing has extended since recently been taken to imply meeting up inside the flesh to partake in some kind of physical activity. While this is not entirely inaccurate, it can be deceptive as there are various online dating solutions which have nothing to do with physically achieving up in order to date additional individuals.

Some of the more prevalent services presented include over the internet chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A variety of additional applications are available to the on the net user, such as games, websites, newsgroups, social gaming, and so much more. Should you be new to the Internet and do not know very well what these sites happen to be, you can search for the types of terms in a general internet search engine and then find the certain type of web page that fits your curiosity. Once you comprehend what these types of online dating sites will be, you may feel at ease and prepared to get started on using these tools.

You can certainly search for more than a few stuff that you would like to experience with one of the many online dating solutions, including communicating online which has a person you met through another internet site, getting to know the other person through emails, and instant messaging, as well as participating in over the internet chats. These are all things that you should explore before making virtually any commitments, but , if you are considering meeting someone face to face you really should explore the other available choices first.

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